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Neuroplasticity, Brain Fitness and Cognitive Health News


Brain Plasticity: How learning changes your brain

neuroplasticity and brain research

You may have heard that the brain is plastic. As you know. the brain is not made of plastic…Neuroplasticity, or brain plasticity, refers to the brain’s ability to CHANGE throughout life. The human brain has the amazing ability to reorganize itself by forming new connections between brain cells (neurons).

In addition to genetic factors, the environment in which a person lives, as well as the actions of that person, play a significant role in plasticity.

Neuroplasticity occurs in the brain:

1- At the beginning of life: when the immature brain organizes itself.

2- In case of brain injury: to compensate for lost functions or maximize remaining functions.

3- Through adulthood: whenever something new is learned and memorized

Plasticity and brain injury

A surprising consequence of neuroplasticity is that the brain activity associated with a given function can move to a different location as a consequence of normal experience, brain damage or recovery.

In his book “The Brain That Changes Itself: Stories of Personal Triumph from the Frontiers of Brain Science,” Norman Doidge describes numerous examples of functional shifts.

In one of them, a surgeon in his 50s suffers a stroke. His left arm is paralyzed. During his rehabilitation, his good arm and hand are immobilized, and he is set to cleaning tables. The task is at first impossible. Then slowly the bad arm remembers how too move. He learns to write again, to play tennis again: the functions of the brain areas killed in the stroke have transferred themselves to healthy regions!

The brain compensates for damage by reorganizing and forming new connections between intact neurons. In order to reconnect, the neurons need to be stimulated through activity.

Plasticity, learning and memory

For a long time, it was believed that as we aged, the connections in the brain became fixed. Research has shown that in fact the brain never stops changing through learning. Plasticity IS the capacity of the brain to change with learning. Changes associated with learning occur mostly at the level of the connections between neurons. New connections can form and the internal structure of the existing synapses can change.

Did you know that when you become an expert in a specific domain, the areas in your brain that deal with this type of skill will grow?

For instance, London taxi drivers have a larger hippocampus (in the posterior region) than London bus drivers (Maguire, Woollett, & Spiers, 2006). Why is that? It is because this region of the hippocampus is specialized in acquiring and using complex spatial information in order to navigate efficiently. Taxi drivers have to navigate around London whereas bus drivers follow a limited set of routes.

Plasticity can also be observed in the brains of bilinguals (Mechelli et al., 2004). It looks like learning a second language is possible through functional changes in the brain: the left inferior parietal cortex is larger in bilingual brains than in monolingual brains.

Plastic changes also occur in musicians brains compared to non-musicians. Gaser and Schlaug (2003) compared professional musicians (who practice at least 1hour per day) to amateur musicians and non-musicians. They found that gray matter (cortex) volume was highest in professional musicians, intermediate in amateur musicians, and lowest in non-musicians in several brain areas involved in playing music: motor regions, anterior superior parietal areas and inferior temporal areas.

Finally, Draganski and colleagues (2006) recently showed that extensive learning of abstract information can also trigger some plastic changes in the brain. They imaged the brains of German medical students 3 months before their medical exam and right after the exam and compared them to brains of students who were not studying for exam at this time. Medical students’ brains showed learning-induced changes in regions of the parietal cortex as well as in the posterior hippocampus. These regions of the brains are known to be involved in memory retrieval and learning.

To go further: Q and A about Brain plasticity

Q: Can new neurons grow in my brain?

A: Yes in some areas and throughout your lifetime. Learn how and read about what happens to these new neurons here: New neurons: good news, bad news.

Q: Can you recommend a good book to learn more about all this and how to apply it?

A: Sure! We published The SharpBrains Guide to Brain Fitness: How to Optimize Brain Health and Performance at Any Age (April 2013; 284 pages) to provide a comprehensive and accessible entry into the research AND how to apply it. And we’re happy to report that it’s getting rave reviews!

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  1. the brain can retrain itself be changing its blumbing, when given direction via a biofeedback system operating on EEG measurements

  2. Semhi hassan says:

    Very interesting findings. Can you explain to me the following puzzle?
    I have been suffering from depression since 1987 and have been taking drugs up to now, but nothing refrained from learning languages. I speak Arabic my mother language, French, and English fluently. I lived I. Germany for one year and I have never taken any courses in German, but I speak and understand German

  3. […] feeling of having learned (also known as whatever out-of-my-depth physiological changes learning induces on a brain) without spending any time […]

  4. […] a long time, we have been told that learning is impaired by age … but that’s not true. Neuroplasticity {changing of the brain} occurs whenever you learn and memorize something new — no matter what […]

  5. […] Brain Plasticity: How learning changes your brain […]

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  10. […] In order to fully understand the principles behind their research design, the authors of the study touched upon several key learning strategies that have been shown improve memory and, according to the science of learning, changes the neural pathways in our brain (Michelon, 2008): […]

  11. […] and mathematical computations.  The brain’s ability to change at any age is referred to as brain plasticity.  Pretty cool.  As long as your learning, the different parts of the brain associated with what […]

  12. […] Learning new skills will enhance your career and it will also benefit you in many other ways. According to research, learning new skills improves your memory over time and it keeps your brain sharp and active. Scan […]

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  14. […] stands. It may take 1,000 hours. It may take 10,000; it may even take 50,000. It depends on your brain plasticity (or your brain’s ability to change over time). Either way, you’ll need patience and a whole lot […]

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  17. […] human brain reorganizes itself by forming new connections between neurons which, when unused, wither away, leading to the […]

  18. […] When you talk about your child’s behaviors(good or bad) you are reinforcing them. It is deeper than the self fulfilling prophecy. We are literally helping to shape the way our children’s brains develop by how we interact with them and how we set up the environment around them. Talking about negative behaviors reinforces the neural pathways associated with these behaviors in both the child’s brain and the brains of those caring for the child. So, it is no surprise then that parents often find themselves stuck. Feeling like they have tried everything yet nothing has changed. (Read more about neural plasticity here.) […]

  19. […] is enabled by the core fact—called neuroplasticity–that the human brain continually changes itself through experience. Neuroplasticity–or brain […]

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  21. […] of our emotional brain makeup, we can consistently learn and develop emotional intelligence through plasticity, a “term that neurologists use to describe the brain’s ability to change” [1]. Over time, […]

  22. […] of our emotional brain makeup, we can consistently learn and develop emotional intelligence through plasticity, a “term that neurologists use to describe the brain’s ability to change” [1]. Over time, […]

  23. […] of our emotional brain makeup, we can consistently learn and develop emotional intelligence through plasticity, a “term that neurologists use to describe the brain’s ability to change” [1]. Over time, […]

  24. […] of our emotional brain makeup, we can consistently learn and develop emotional intelligence through plasticity, a “term that neurologists use to describe the brain’s ability to change” [1]. Over time, […]

  25. […] neurociencia más moderna nos se enseña ahora la enorme plasticidad que tienen nuestros cerebros para seguir aprendiendo, reconectándse y reconfigurándose a lo largo de toda nuestra […]

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