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Study identifies brain circuits enabling four-year-olds to “put themselves in other people’s shoes”

Thanks to a critical fibre connection in the brain (green), four-year-old kids can start to understand what other people think. Courtesy of Max Planck Institute.

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A remarkable milestone occurs in children around their fourth birthdays: They learn that other people can have different thoughts than they do. A recent study is the first to examine the specific brain changes associated with this developmental breakthrough. Read the rest of this entry »

Brain Training and Schizophrenia: How to Boost Social Cognitive Skills

Individuals suffering from schizophrenia show social cognitive deficits, that is difficulties in perceiving and understanding the social world. Research shows that schizophrenia is accompanied by social cognition problems such as problems identifying facial expressions, understanding and responding to social cues (e.g., body language), understanding that others have different mental states and thoughts than oneself (also called Theory of mind). These deficits are usually persistent over time and resist pharmacological treatment. Interestingly, social cognition may be trainable. This recent article reviews the research and shows that social cognitive training programs :

  • produce a moderate to large improvement in the recognition of facial emotions
  • produce a smaller improvement in Theory of mind
  • do not improve social perception (such as understanding voice intonation or body language) Read the rest of this entry »

Changing our Minds…by Reading Fiction

(Editor’s Note: we are pleased to bring you this article thanks to our collaboration with Greater Good Magazine.)

Changing our Minds

By imagining many possible worlds, argues novelist and psychologist Keith Oatley, fiction helps us understand ourselves and others.

-By Keith Oatley

For more than two thousand years people have insisted that reading fiction is good for bookyou. Aristotle claimed that poetry—he meant the epics of Homer and the tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, which we would now call fiction—is a more serious business than history. History, he argued, tells us only what has happened, whereas fiction tells us what can happen, which can stretch our moral imaginations and give us insights into ourselves and other people. This is a strong argument for schools to continue to focus on the literary arts, not just history, science, and social studies.

But is the idea of fiction being good for you merely wishful thinking? The members of a small research group in Toronto—Maja Djikic, Raymond Mar, and I—have been working on the problem. We have turned the idea into questions. In what ways might reading fiction be good for you? If it is good for you, why would this be? And what is the psychological function of art generally?

Through a series of studies, we have discovered that fiction at its best isn’t just enjoyable. It measurably enhances our abilities to empathize with other people and connect with something larger than ourselves.

Possible selves, possible worlds

People often think that a fiction is something untrue, but this is wrong. The word derives from the Latin fingere, to make. As something made, fiction is different from something discovered, as in physics, or from something that happened, as in the news. But this does not mean it is false. Fiction is about possible selves in possible worlds.

In terms of 21st-century psychology, we might best see fiction as a kind of simulation: one that runs not on computers, but on minds. Such mental simulation unfolds on two levels.

The first level involves simulating the minds of other people: imagining what they are thinking and feeling, which developmental psychologists call “theory of mind.” The theory-of-mind simulation is like a watch, which is a small model that simulates Read the rest of this entry »

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