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Neuroplasticity, Brain Fitness and Cognitive Health News

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January 2010 Summit

In Jan­u­ary of 2010 Sharp­Brains suc­cess­ful­ly orga­nized the inau­gur­al vir­tu­al, glob­al Sharp­Brains Sum­mit on Tech­nol­o­gy for Cog­ni­tive Health and Per­for­mance (Jan­u­ary 18–20th, 2010). The Sum­mit fea­tured a dream team of over 40 speak­ers who are lead­ers in indus­try and research to dis­cuss emerg­ing research, tools and best prac­tices for cog­ni­tive health and per­for­mance, and gath­ered over 250 par­tic­i­pants in 16 coun­tries.

summit_tutorial_tnailAre you inter­est­ed in what over 40 lead­ing sci­en­tists, clin­i­cians, exec­u­tives and tech­nol­o­gists have to say about the lat­est Tech­nol­o­gy for Cog­ni­tive Health and Per­for­mance? Want to hear how they respond­ed to more than 200 audi­ence ques­tions? You can now Order and Down­load the Full Tran­scripts of the Jan­u­ary 2010, Sharp­Brains Sum­mit HERE (300+ page PDF elec­tron­ic doc­u­ment; $195).

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This is what some of the par­tic­i­pants said:
— “Splen­did line-up of speak­ers.” — Jake Duna­gan, Research Direc­tor at the Insti­tute For The Future, USA.
— “Uni­ver­sal kudos from our team. Agen­da worked out extra­or­di­nar­i­ly well.” — Ken Kosik, Exec­u­tive Direc­tor of CFIT, USA.
— “One of the best con­fer­ences I have ever attend­ed in 4 decades of research & inno­va­tion life.” — Ron Baeck­er, Lab Direc­tor at Uni­ver­si­ty of Toron­to, Cana­da.
— “Excel­lent con­tent and out­stand­ing admin­is­tra­tion.” — Dan­ny Dankn­er, CEO Applied Cog­ni­tive Engi­neer­ing, Israel.
— “An incred­i­bly stim­u­lat­ing con­fer­ence, with a per­fect bal­ance of sci­ence and appli­ca­tion.” — David Tal, Own­er, A.G.E. Mat­ters Clin­ic, Cana­da.

Below are a few select­ed Tran­script Excerpts from the first ses­sion “Cog­ni­tion & Neu­ro­plas­tic­i­ty: The New Health & Well­ness Fron­tier”, which occu­pies Pages 1–28 of the Tran­scripts. Full tran­scripts include all talks and Q&A ses­sions over 326 pages. Libraries can con­tact us for spe­cial dis­counts.

Mar­i­an Dia­mond, UC-Berke­ley:


marian_diamond“I have cho­sen for my short intro­duc­tion to our Sum­mit meet­ing to review our research from 1960 to 2009 pro­vid­ing us with infor­ma­tion to main­tain a healthy brain…Number one, diet. Num­ber two, exer­cise. Num­ber three, chal­lenge. Num­ber four, new­ness. Num­ber five, love.”

Third, chal­lenge. Peo­ple fre­quent­ly do the same lev­el of cross­word puz­zles to stim­u­late their brains year after year. They do not chal­lenge their brains with more dif­fi­cult lev­els of puz­zles. In our research, we showed that if we chal­lenged the rats to reach their food cups by hav­ing to climb over many obstruc­tions, their brains increased more than those of rats who could walk unhin­dered to their food cups. Chal­lenge increased brain size.”

Four. New­ness. If we keep the same objects for the rats to explore in the enriched cages for sev­er­al con­sec­u­tive days, the cere­bral cor­tex appeared not to show a response to the enriched con­di­tion. The brain had increased ini­tial­ly but with lack of con­tin­ued stim­u­la­tion, had lost the ben­e­fit of the input. We found it nec­es­sary to change the objects every few days to pro­vide new stim­uli to increase cor­ti­cal dimen­sions. So new­ness is impor­tant to devel­op larg­er brains.”

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Tom War­den, All­state:


tom_pic.thumbnail“… we see the oppor­tu­ni­ty that cog­ni­tive train­ing pro­vides as just the next evo­lu­tion of things that we can advo­cate and get behind that ulti­mate­ly make for a bet­ter dri­ving expe­ri­ence, a safer dri­ving expe­ri­ence for peo­ple. Not only for our insureds, but to help the roads be safer for every­one.”

Increas­ing­ly, obvi­ous­ly with the baby boom sort of age wave mov­ing through its lat­er years, the safe­ty of senior dri­vers will become a larg­er and larg­er prob­lem that soci­ety and com­pa­nies that insure them will have to face…Then in doing that research we found Posit Sci­ence, who is lever­ag­ing the use­ful field of view tech­nol­o­gy devel­oped by Kar­lene Ball…so what we did is to attempt to repli­cate the results that were observed in the lab­o­ra­to­ry envi­ron­ment where old­er dri­vers who have com­plet­ed a good amount of train­ing, 10 hours or more of train­ing, had shown that the risk of crash could be reduced by up to about 50%.”

…I believe 8% of the folks that we offered the soft­ware to took the soft­ware and installed it and about half of those folks actu­al­ly trained a sig­nif­i­cant num­ber of hours. And this was done through a direct mail cam­paign so we didn’t have a lot of inte­grat­ed mar­ket­ing of the cam­paign, so we were pret­ty hap­py with the num­bers.”

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David White­house, OptumHealth Behav­ioral Solu­tions:

whitehouse_large-150x150Man­aged care has not always been on the fore­front of inno­va­tion and it has been, for us, a chal­lenge and an excite­ment to think about how best to incor­po­rate the lat­est find­ings in neu­ro­science. If I was to give you the major areas that we think are impor­tant, one is the impor­tance of neu­ro­science capa­bilit­ties to improve triage, the sec­ond is the impor­tance that this has on increas­ing access to much bet­ter func­tion­al assess­ments and its rela­tion­ship to safe­ty. The third is in the area of clin­i­cal deci­sion sup­port and the fourth is in brain health.”

First and fore­most, why is it that in every oth­er organ we have objec­tive data of the organ itself doing its work under var­i­ous loads to help us when we need to make deci­sions about its health and dis­ease state and how best to sup­port it and inter­vene.”

Much of this has exist­ed in neu­ro­science. Neu­ropsy­cho­log­i­cal test­ing, genet­ic tests, func­tion­al MRI. But in day to day lives of peo­ple, these were not eas­i­ly acces­si­ble and were often fre­quent­ly expen­sive. The solu­tion to this for us has been a devel­op­ing rela­tion­ship with a com­pa­ny in Aus­tralia called Brain Resource who have devel­oped what is now the largest stan­dard­ized inte­grat­ed neu­ro­science data­base in the world on the human brain.”

As we know, it is 17 years from the bench to clin­i­cal prac­tice, and we also know that 50% of guide­lines are obso­lete with­in 6 years. For any clin­i­cian there­fore to keep up to their knowl­edge base on the lev­el of sci­ence that is now com­ing out and inform­ing clin­i­cal deci­sion mak­ing is almost impos­si­ble with­out com­put­er­ized sup­port.”

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William Reich­man, Bay­crest:

meet_bill_DrWilliamEReichman_-150x150…there’s an imper­a­tive now for those of us in the field of aging to focus more I believe on pre­ven­tion, well­ness, and cer­tain­ly that sci­ence which will help us to best under­stand how to mod­i­fy chron­ic ill­ness risk fac­tors through­out the entire prac­tice of aging, through­out our entire life span.”

This is cer­tain­ly true not only for phys­i­cal health but it is true for brain health. I often say, and this was allud­ed to in the ear­li­er speak­ers that we must do for brain health in the 21st cen­tu­ry what we large­ly accom­plished in car­dio­vas­cu­lar health in the past century…that includes an increased focus not only on ter­tiary pre­ven­tion, but on pri­ma­ry and sec­ondary pre­ven­tion.”

…at Bay­crest in the last cou­ple of years, we rec­og­nized that it’s now time to take the sci­en­tif­ic insights out of the lab­o­ra­to­ry and to iden­ti­fy prac­ti­cal appli­ca­tions for this science…approximately a year and a half ago the Ontario gov­ern­ment made a deci­sion to invest $10 mil­lion in Canada’s first cen­tre for brain fit­ness to be housed at Bay­crest at the Rot­man Research Insti­tute.”

Here in Cana­da I think that we’ve been able to make a com­pelling case main­tain­ing good brain fit­ness needs to be a nation­al pri­or­i­ty for this coun­try and we have been engaged in dis­cus­sions with the gov­ern­ment, both fed­er­al­ly and provin­cial­ly, that brain health pro­grams real­ly need to begin in child­hood.”

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P Murali Doraiswamy, Duke Uni­ver­si­ty:

murali-150x150Vir­tu­al­ly in all of the dis­eases that I work with, whether it be depres­sion, whether it be Alzheimer’s, whether it be ADHD, there are sig­nif­i­cant lim­i­ta­tions to the cur­rent treat­ment modal­i­ties and peo­ple real­ly want to be free of med­ica­tion if pos­si­ble so non-phar­ma­co­log­ic inter­ven­tions such as exer­cise, cog­ni­tive train­ing, dietary inter­ven­tion. I think there’s just a huge need for those kinds of inter­ven­tions.”

… it’s real­ly essen­tial for the field before they real­ly go to the next lev­el to make sure that they occu­py a space in people’s minds that asso­ciates them with cred­i­ble sci­ence-based claims because you don’t want to walk into a gro­cery store or into a gas sta­tion and see a brain game claim­ing that they’re a neu­ro­plas­tic­i­ty brain game or a bot­tle of water that’s claim­ing it’s a cog­ni­tive reserve enhancer because then I think you’re going to destroy the whole field key.”

So I think it’s essen­tial for acad­e­mia, for indus­try, for think tanks, for even the fed­er­al gov­ern­ment agen­cies such as per­haps Eng­land, US, Cana­da, to come togeth­er and form a set of guide­lines that can real­ly guide the prop­er devel­op­ment of a lot of these prod­ucts and by prod­ucts I’m talk­ing about two types of prod­ucts. One is cog­ni­tive screen­ing instru­ments and the sec­ond is inter­ven­tion prod­ucts to either improve sort of nor­mal func­tion­ing or to increase resilience to stress or three, to pre­vent dis­ease.”

(answer­ing to audi­ence ques­tion, “when do you believe that cog­ni­tive screen­ing may become a pret­ty rou­tine part of stan­dard med­ical care”) I think it’s long overdue…the brain is the most impor­tant organ.

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Inter­est­ed in what over 40 lead­ing sci­en­tists, clin­i­cians, exec­u­tives and tech­nol­o­gists have to say about the lat­est Tech­nol­o­gy for Cog­ni­tive Health and Per­for­mance? Want to hear how they respond­ed to more than 200 audi­ence ques­tions? You can now Order and Down­load the Full Tran­scripts of the Jan­u­ary 18–20th, 2010, Sharp­Brains Sum­mit HERE (300+ page PDF elec­tron­ic doc­u­ment; $195).

You can learn more about the 15 ses­sions and the over 40 Speak­ers below. All talks and Q&A ses­sions are includ­ed in the Full Tran­scripts.

Agenda:

(Note: all times are US Pacif­ic Time.)

Monday, January 18th, 2010

Tuesday, January 19th, 2010

8–8.15am: My Con­tin­ued Love Affair with the Brain. Mar­i­an Dia­mond, Pro­fes­sor of Neu­ro­science and Anato­my, UC-Berke­ley

8.15–9.15am: Cog­ni­tion & Neu­ro­plas­tic­i­ty: The New Health & Well­ness Fron­tier
In a world with aging pop­u­la­tions and grow­ing life­long men­tal demands, is it time to con­sid­er cog­ni­tion in its own right as a health out­come, and to incor­po­rate neu­ro­plas­tic­i­ty research and tools into main­stream health & well­ness?

  • Alvaro Fer­nan­dez, CEO, Sharp­Brains
  • Tom War­den, Asst. VP, All­state Research and Plan­ning Cen­ter
  • David White­house, Chief Med­ical Offi­cer, OptumHealth Behav­ioral Solu­tions
  • William Reich­man, Pres­i­dent, Bay­crest
  • P Murali Doraiswamy, Bio­log­i­cal Psy­chi­a­try Divi­sion Head, Duke Uni­ver­si­ty
8–8.15am: Inno­va­tion, Peo­ple and Tech­nol­o­gy. Chuck House, Exec­u­tive Direc­tor, Stan­ford Media X

8.15–9.15am: Neu­rocog­ni­tion & Med­i­cine: Impli­ca­tions for Research, Diag­no­sis, Treat­ment
In a grow­ing num­ber of clin­i­cal con­di­tions the effec­tive iden­ti­fi­ca­tion, reme­di­a­tion and reha­bil­i­ta­tion of asso­ci­at­ed neu­rocog­ni­tive deficits is increas­ing­ly seen as a crit­i­cal dimen­sion of pre­ven­tive and clin­i­cal care. This pan­el will dis­cuss emerg­ing needs, tools, oppor­tu­ni­ties and chal­lenges.

  • Kei­th Wesnes, Prac­tice Leader, Unit­ed BioSource Cor­po­ra­tion
  • Adam Gaz­za­ley, Neu­ro­science Imag­ing Cen­ter Direc­tor, UCSF
  • Michel Noir, CEO, SBT / Hap­pyNeu­ron
  • Lau­rence Hir­sh­berg, Direc­tor, Neu­roDe­vel­op­ment Cen­ter
9.30–11am: Tools for Safer Dri­ving: The Oppor­tu­ni­ty with Teenagers and Adults
Safer dri­ving can become the first main­stream appli­ca­tion of cog­ni­tive train­ing, giv­en grow­ing aware­ness of dis­tract­ed dri­ving, valu­able cog­ni­tive research, prod­uct avail­abil­i­ty and chan­nel inter­est. Dri­ving schools in Europe and Cana­da, insur­ers and asso­ci­a­tions in the USA, are already lead­ing the way.
  • Steven Aldrich, CEO, Posit Sci­ence
  • Shlo­mo Breznitz, Pres­i­dent, Cog­niFit
  • Jer­ri Edwards, Assoc. Pro­fes­sor Uni­ver­si­ty of South Flori­da
  • Peter Chris­tian­son, Pres­i­dent of Young Dri­vers of Cana­da
9.30–11am: How Can Neu­ro­science Inform and  Refine Men­tal Health Care
Neu­rosy­chi­a­try and relat­ed clin­i­cal fields focus on the iden­ti­fi­ca­tion and treat­ment of men­tal dys­func­tion. Grow­ing neu­ro­sci­en­tif­ic knowl­edge and meth­ods sug­gest an alter­na­tive frame­work: mea­sur­ing and help­ing main­tain the brain func­tion­al­i­ty required to thrive in mod­ern soci­ety. How can cog­ni­tive and behav­ioral neu­ro­science inform and refine men­tal health care?
  • Michael Merzenich, Emer­i­tus Pro­fes­sor, UCSF
  • Torkel Kling­berg, Pro­fes­sor Cog­ni­tive Neu­ro­science, Karolin­s­ka Insti­tute
  • Joshua Stein­er­man, Asst. Pro­fes­sor, Albert Ein­stein – Mon­te­fiore Med­ical Cen­ter
  • Yaakov Stern, Cog­ni­tive Neu­ro­science Divi­sion Leader, Colum­bia Uni­ver­si­ty
Noon-1.30pm: Baby Boomers and Beyond: Main­tain­ing Cog­ni­tive Vital­i­ty
Aging baby boomers and a grow­ing aspi­ra­tion to “brain fit­ness” are real­i­ty today, togeth­er with a media con­tro­ver­sy on whether “brain games” and “brain fit­ness soft­ware” work or are a waste of time and mon­ey. This pan­el will dis­cuss what “work” means and doesn’t mean, and offer light into what con­sumers and insti­tu­tions are buy­ing -and why.
  • Kunal Sarkar, CEO, Lumos Labs
  • Eliz­a­beth Zelin­s­ki, Pro­fes­sor at USC Davis School of Geron­tol­ogy
  • Dan Michel, CEO, Dakim
  • Michael Cole, CEO, Viv­i­ty Labs
  • Elkhonon Gold­berg, NYU/ Sharp­Brains
Noon-1.30pm: Inte­grat­ing Cog­ni­tion with Home Health and Med­ical Home Mod­els
Emerg­ing health­care deliv­ery mod­els, such as home health and med­ical homes, bring new urgency to the need for per­son­al­ized and well-inte­grat­ed care process­es that active­ly mon­i­tor and help address cog­ni­tive and emo­tion­al prob­lems. Pio­neers in com­put­er­ized cog­ni­tive behav­ioral ther­a­py, patient-cen­tered care, and home health care will dis­cuss oppor­tu­ni­ties and chal­lenges.
  • Ken­neth Kosik, Co-Direc­tor, UC San­ta Bar­bara Neu­ro­science Research Insti­tute
  • Jonas Jen­di, CEO, Cogmed
  • Hol­ly Jimi­son, Assoc. Pro­fes­sor, Ore­gon Health & Sci­ence Uni­ver­si­ty
  • Jesse Wright, Direc­tor Depres­sion Cen­ter, Uni­ver­si­ty of Louisville
1.45–3.15pm: Next Gen­er­a­tion Cog­ni­tive & Emo­tion­al Health Assess­ments
Scal­able, auto­mat­ed appli­ca­tions can assess and mon­i­tor a vari­ety of cog­ni­tive and emo­tion­al func­tions, help­ing refine med­ical diag­noses and direct treat­ments in a way that the Mini-Men­tal and sim­i­lar tra­di­tion­al assess­ments can’t. This pan­el will dis­cuss online assess­ments deployed by insur­ers, cog­ni­tive mon­i­tor­ing via game play­ing, and exper­i­men­tal vir­tu­al-real­i­ty approach­es.
  • Evian Gor­don, CEO, Brain Resource
  • Misha Pavel, Bio­med­ical Engi­neer­ing Divi­sion Head, Ore­gon Health & Sci­ence Uni­ver­si­ty
  • Albert “Skip” Riz­zo, Co-Direc­tor VR Psych Lab at USC
1.45–3.15pm: What’s Next: Entre­pre­neur­ial And Fund­ing Per­spec­tives
Demog­ra­phy meets research meets tech­nol­o­gy: a recipe for inno­va­tion and entre­pre­neur­ship cross­ing tra­di­tion­al sec­tor lines (neu­rotech, health IT, con­sumer inter­net, soft­ware). What are entre­pre­neurs try­ing, and learn­ing? What are ven­ture groups fund­ing, and why?
  • Tim Chang, Part­ner, Nor­west Ven­ture Part­ners
  • Lisa Schooner­man, Co-Founder, Vibrant­Brains
  • Richard Levin­son, Pres­i­dent, Atten­tion Con­trol Sys­tems
  • Veroni­ka Litin­s­ki, Direc­tor, MaRS Ven­ture Group
3.30–4pm: The Future of Cog­ni­tive Health Tech — Intel’s Per­spec­tive
Two researchers at Intel Dig­i­tal Health will out­line why and how Intel Cor­po­ra­tion is sup­port­ing R&D ini­tia­tives such as the Tech­nol­o­gy Research for Inde­pen­dent Liv­ing (TRIL) Cen­tre and ORCATECH to help devel­op home-based auto­mat­ed appli­ca­tions to assess, mon­i­tor and help main­tain cog­ni­tion among old­er adults. They will also share key lessons learned so far, and out­line chal­lenges and poten­tial guide­lines for the field at large based on ethno­graph­ic research and first-hand prod­uct devel­op­ment.
  • Mar­garet Mor­ris, Senior Researcher, Intel’s Dig­i­tal Health Group
  • Muki Hansteen-Izo­ra, Senior Design Researcher and Strate­gist, Intel’s Dig­i­tal Health Group
3.30–4pm: Future Stan­dards and Chan­nels for Neu­ro­plas­tic­i­ty-based Inter­ven­tions
Tra­di­tion­al­ly, med­i­cine focus­es on inva­sive inter­ven­tions (drugs, devices), while oth­er sec­tors deal with non-inva­sive ones (exer­cise, learn­ing, med­i­ta­tion, ther­a­py and train­ing). These bound­aries are increas­ing­ly arti­fi­cial, sug­gest­ing the need for new stan­dards, assess­ments and chan­nels to evolve and sup­port mean­ing­ful inno­va­tion in years to come.
  • Charles Jen­nings, Direc­tor of the McGov­ern Insti­tute Neu­rotech­nol­o­gy Pro­gram, MIT
  • Stephen Mack­nik, Direc­tor of the Lab­o­ra­to­ry of Behav­ioral Neu­ro­phys­i­ol­o­gy, Bar­row Neu­ro­log­i­cal Insti­tute

Expo Day (Wednesday, January 20th)

9am. Baycrest/ Cog­nic­i­ti intro­duced the new Memory@Work work­shop, designed to teach what mem­o­ry is, how lifestyle fac­tors such as dis­trac­tion and stress can affect mem­o­ry, and how to enhance mem­o­ry per­for­mance at work with the use of enabling strate­gies.

10am. Cog­niFit demoed Cog­niFit Per­son­al Coach and Cog­niFit Senior Dri­ver, two online pro­grams designed to assess and main cog­ni­tive func­tions for healthy liv­ing and safe dri­ving, respec­tive­ly.

11am. Posit Sci­ence demoed InSight, a soft­ware-based cog­ni­tive train­ing pack­age designed to sharp­en brain’s visu­al sys­tem. This is the pro­gram being test­ed by All­state for safer dri­ving.

Noon. Hap­py Neu­ron intro­duced HAP­PYneu­ron PRO, a new plat­form for pro­fes­sion­als for the effec­tive deliv­ery and man­age­ment of cog­ni­tive reme­di­a­tion and reha­bil­i­ta­tion pro­grams in a patient cen­tric man­ner.

1pm. Sharp­Brains helped nav­i­gate this grow­ing field by dis­cussing The State of the Brain Fit­ness Soft­ware 2009 report and The Sharp­Brains Guide to Brain Fit­ness con­sumer guide, and sum­ma­riz­ing key Sum­mit take-aways.

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Speaker Bios:

Monday, January 18th, 2010

Tuesday, January 19th, 2010

marian_diamondMar­i­an C. Dia­mond, Ph.D., is Pro­fes­sor of Neu­ro­science and Anato­my at UC-Berke­ley and one of the world’s fore­most researchers on neu­ro­plas­tic­i­ty and enrich­ment since the 1960s. She is author of more than 150 sci­en­tif­ic arti­cles and 5 books, includ­ing Enrich­ing Hered­i­ty (Free Press/Simon and Schus­ter, 1988) and The Mag­ic Trees of the Mind (Plume, 1999). In par­tic­u­lar, she is inter­est­ed in study­ing the effects of the exter­nal envi­ron­ment, aging, and immune respons­es on the cere­bral neo­cor­tex.

Alvaro 3920Alvaro Fer­nan­dez, CEO, Sharp­Brains. Alvaro Fer­nan­dez is Sharp­Brains’ co-founder and Chief Exec­u­tive Offi­cer. He has been quot­ed by The New York Times, The Wall Street Jour­nal, CNN, and oth­ers. Alvaro is a mem­ber of the Glob­al Agen­da Coun­cils ini­tia­tive run by the World Eco­nom­ic Forum, and recent­ly co-authored The Sharp­Brains Guide to Brain Fit­ness. He start­ed his career at McK­in­sey & Com­pa­ny and led the launch of sev­er­al pub­lish­ing and edu­ca­tion com­pa­nies in the US and Europe. Alvaro has an MBA and MA in Edu­ca­tion from Stan­ford Uni­ver­si­ty, and enjoys teach­ing The Sci­ence of Brain Health at UC-Berke­ley Osh­er Life­long Learn­ing Insti­tute.

tom_pic.thumbnailThomas M. War­den is Assis­tant Vice Pres­i­dent and Leader of Allstate’s Research and Plan­ning Cen­ter (ARPC). He helps sets ARPC’s research agen­da and man­age its exe­cu­tion by 60-mem­ber ARPC staff, lead­ing the devel­op­ment of sig­nif­i­cant inno­va­tions that con­tribute to Allstate’s prof­itable growth. He is a Char­tered Finan­cial Ana­lyst and has an M.B.A. from Har­vard Uni­ver­si­ty.

whitehouse_largeDavid White­house, Chief Med­ical Offi­cer, OptumHealth Behav­ioral Solu­tions. Dr. White­house serves as OptumHealth Behav­ioral Solu­tions’ clin­i­cal lead as well as the company’s prod­uct strate­gist for medical/behavioral/pharmacy inte­gra­tion and future inno­va­tion. His dis­tin­guished career also includes posi­tions as assis­tant clin­i­cal pro­fes­sor of psy­chi­a­try at both Dart­mouth Med­ical School and Yale Uni­ver­si­ty School of Med­i­cine, chief of psy­chi­a­try at St. Mary’s Hos­pi­tal in Con­necti­cut, and chief exec­u­tive offi­cer of Charles Riv­er Hos­pi­tal in Mass­a­chu­setts. Dr. White­house holds master’s degrees from both Har­vard Uni­ver­si­ty and Cam­bridge Uni­ver­si­ty, an M.B.A. from the Uni­ver­si­ty of Con­necti­cut, an M.D. from Dart­mouth Med­ical School, and a doc­tor­ate in the­ol­o­gy from Har­vard Uni­ver­si­ty.

meet_bill_DrWilliamEReichman_William Reich­man, Pres­i­dent, Bay­crest. Dr. William E. Reich­man is Pres­i­dent and Chief Exec­u­tive Offi­cer of Bay­crest, one of the world’s pre­mier aca­d­e­m­ic health sci­ences cen­tres focused on aging and brain func­tion. Dr. Reich­man, an inter­na­tion­al­ly-known expert in geri­atric men­tal health and demen­tia is also Pro­fes­sor of Psy­chi­a­try on the Fac­ul­ty of Med­i­cine at the Uni­ver­si­ty of Toron­to. He is a not­ed author­i­ty on the deliv­ery of men­tal health and demen­tia ser­vices in nurs­ing home set­tings. His pre­vi­ous aca­d­e­m­ic activ­i­ties have focused on the phar­ma­co­log­i­cal treat­ment of Alzheimer’s dis­ease and its asso­ci­at­ed apa­thy and neg­a­tive symp­toms. Dr. Reich­man is a for­mer Pres­i­dent of the Amer­i­can Asso­ci­a­tion for Geri­atric Psy­chi­a­try and the Geri­atric Men­tal Health Foun­da­tion.

muraliP Murali Doraiswamy, Bio­log­i­cal Psy­chi­a­try Divi­sion Head, Duke Uni­ver­si­ty. Dr. Doraiswamy is a renowned expert on brain health, head of Duke University’s Bio­log­i­cal Psy­chi­a­try divi­sion and a Senior Fel­low at Duke’s Cen­ter for the Study of Aging. The author of more than two hun­dred sci­en­tif­ic arti­cles, Dr. Doraiswamy has served as an advis­er to the Food and Drug Admin­is­tra­tion, the Amer­i­can Fed­er­a­tion for Aging Research, the Nation­al Insti­tutes of Aging, and the World Health Orga­ni­za­tion, as well as lead­ing Alzheimer’s med­ical jour­nals and advo­ca­cy groups.

aldrichSteven Aldrich, CEO, Posit Sci­ence. Steven Aldrich is Pres­i­dent and CEO of Posit Sci­ence, join­ing the com­pa­ny from Intu­it where he cre­at­ed sig­nif­i­cant growth over 13 years in many roles. Most recent­ly he was VP of Strat­e­gy and Inno­va­tion of the small busi­ness divi­sion where he accel­er­at­ed growth by solv­ing impor­tant cus­tomer prob­lems through part­ner­ships and acqui­si­tions. He guid­ed the Quick­Books Indus­try Solu­tions and Quick­Books Point of Sale teams to sev­er­al suc­ces­sive years of sig­nif­i­cant employ­ee engage­ment increas­es, cus­tomer expe­ri­ence improve­ments, and rev­enue growth. Steven was Pres­i­dent of Quick­en Insur­ance, a busi­ness he co-found­ed and sold to Intu­it. He has worked in the invest­ment bank­ing divi­sion of Alex. Brown & Sons and for McK­in­sey & Com­pa­ny, com­plet­ed his MBA at the Stan­ford Grad­u­ate School of Busi­ness, and he holds an AB in Physics from the Uni­ver­si­ty of North Car­oli­na. Steven is an avid sup­port­er of the arts, and Pres­i­dent of the Board of the Bay Area Glass Insti­tute.

Shlomo Breznitz3Shlo­mo Breznitz, Pres­i­dent, Cog­niFit. Renowned cog­ni­tive psy­chol­o­gist, Pro­fes­sor Shlo­mo Breznitz has been engaged as vis­it­ing pro­fes­sor by numer­ous lead­ing insti­tu­tions includ­ing Uni­ver­si­ty of Cal­i­for­nia at Berke­ley, Stan­ford Uni­ver­si­ty, Lon­don School of Eco­nom­ics, and the US Depart­ment of Health and Human Ser­vices’ Nation­al Insti­tutes of Health. Author of sev­en books and many sci­en­tif­ic arti­cles, Pro­fes­sor Breznitz is found­ing direc­tor of the Cen­ter for the Study of Psy­cho­log­i­cal Stress at the Uni­ver­si­ty of Haifa, where he also served as Lady Davis Pro­fes­sor of Psy­chol­o­gy, Rec­tor, and Uni­ver­si­ty Pres­i­dent. His acclaimed Dri­ve­Fit™ train­ing pro­gram, which was the first Cog­niFit com­mer­cial prod­uct, received the UK Prince Michael Road Safe­ty Award.

j_edwardsJer­ri Edwards, Asso­ciate Pro­fes­sor at the School of Aging Stud­ies Uni­ver­si­ty of South Flori­da. Dr. Edwards’ research is aimed toward dis­cov­er­ing how cog­ni­tive abil­i­ties can be main­tained and even enhanced with advanc­ing age. Ulti­mate­ly, the goals of Dr. Edwards’ research are to extend the mobil­i­ty and inde­pen­dence of old­er adults there­by improv­ing their qual­i­ty of life. She is par­tic­u­lar­ly inter­est­ed in how cog­ni­tive inter­ven­tions may help old­er adults to avoid or at least delay func­tion­al dif­fi­cul­ties and there­by main­tain inde­pen­dence. Much of her work has focused upon the func­tion­al abil­i­ty of dri­ving includ­ing assess­ing dri­ving fit­ness among old­er adults and reme­di­a­tion of cog­ni­tive decline that results in dri­ving dif­fi­cul­ties.

Peter_Portraits_019[1]Peter Chris­tian­son, Pres­i­dent of Young Dri­vers of Cana­da. Peter joined Young Dri­vers as a YD fran­chise own­er in Hamil­ton in 1975, becom­ing the Direc­tor of Cen­tre Oper­a­tions in 1979 and YD Pres­i­dent in 1984. Young Dri­vers of Cana­da today is Canada’s largest dri­ver train­ing orga­ni­za­tion, hav­ing grown to over 140 class­rooms nation­al­ly and taught over one mil­lion novice dri­vers. Peter has man­aged YD cur­ricu­lum devel­op­ment for the past 30 years and in 2003 he acquired the Cana­di­an rights for ‘Cog­niFit’ dri­ving pro­grams that focus on improv­ing the cog­ni­tive skills required to dri­ve safe­ly.

sarkarKunal Sarkar, CEO, Lumos Labs. Kunal is a found­ing mem­ber of Lumos Labs and leads the oper­a­tions and mar­ket­ing team. Pre­vi­ous­ly he was a Vice Pres­i­dent at pri­vate equi­ty fund McCown De Leeuw and Co.(MDC). At MDC Kunal was inte­gral­ly involved in the strat­e­gy, oper­a­tions and the finan­cial recap­i­tal­iza­tion of a num­ber of port­fo­lio com­pa­nies includ­ing serv­ing on the board of On Stage Enter­tain­ment and USBuild, and the IPO of StoneMor (STON). Pri­or to MDC, he worked in the Strate­gic Plan­ning and Devel­op­ment group at the Walt Dis­ney Com­pa­ny. Kunal grad­u­at­ed magna cum laude from Prince­ton Uni­ver­si­ty with a B.A. in Eco­nom­ics with a minor in Finance.

zelinskiProfileEliz­a­beth Zelin­s­ki, Pro­fes­sor at USC Davis School of Geron­tol­ogy. Eliz­a­beth Zelin­s­ki, Ph.D., is a Pro­fes­sor of Geron­tol­ogy and Psy­chol­o­gy at the Leonard Davis School of Geron­tol­ogy. Dr. Zelin­s­ki has joint appoint­ments in the Psy­chol­o­gy Depart­ment, Neu­ro­sciences and the Study of Women and Men in Soci­ety (SWMS) Pro­grams. Dr. Zelin­s­ki grad­u­at­ed sum­ma cum laude from Pace Uni­ver­si­ty and received her grad­u­ate degrees in psy­chol­o­gy, with a spe­cial­iza­tion in aging, from the Uni­ver­si­ty of South­ern Cal­i­for­nia. Dr. Zelin­s­ki is the prin­ci­pal inves­ti­ga­tor of the Long Beach Lon­gi­tu­di­nal Study.

dan_portraitDan Michel, CEO, Dakim. Dan spent more than 30 years help­ing some of America’s most suc­cess­ful com­pa­nies mar­ket and adver­tise their brands. Over the last twen­ty years, he was Chief Oper­at­ing Offi­cer of BBDO Worldwide/Los Ange­les, Pres­i­dent of Mar­ket­ing of Colum­bia Pic­tures, and Pres­i­dent and Co-Cre­ative Direc­tor of his own cre­ative adver­tis­ing agency, Michel/Russo, Inc. Dan’s father was diag­nosed with Alzheimer’s Dis­ease in 1993. Based upon learn­ing about the dis­ease, and hav­ing gained first­hand expe­ri­ence par­tic­i­pat­ing in activ­i­ties with his father, he rec­og­nized the ther­a­peu­tic and emo­tion­al val­ue of cog­ni­tive­ly stim­u­lat­ing activ­i­ties, and the press­ing need for more effec­tive means of pro­vid­ing this line of ther­a­py for suf­fer­ers of Alzheimer’s Dis­ease and relat­ed demen­tia. Dan earned a B.A. from Clare­mont Men’s Col­lege (now Clare­mont McKen­na Col­lege) and an M.S. from North­west­ern Uni­ver­si­ty.

eg2Elkhonon Gold­berg, Chief Sci­en­tif­ic Advi­sor, Sharp­Brains. Dr. Gold­berg is an author, sci­en­tist, edu­ca­tor and clin­i­cian, inter­na­tion­al­ly renowned for his clin­i­cal work, research, writ­ings and teach­ing in neu­ropsy­chol­o­gy and cog­ni­tive neu­ro­science. He is a Clin­i­cal Pro­fes­sor of Neu­rol­o­gy at New York Uni­ver­si­ty School of Med­i­cine, and Diplo­mate of The Amer­i­can Board of Pro­fes­sion­al Psy­chol­o­gy in Clin­i­cal Neu­ropsy­chol­o­gy. A stu­dent and close asso­ciate of the great neu­ropsy­chol­o­gist Alexan­der Luria, Dr. Gold­berg has con­tin­ued to advance Luria’s sci­en­tif­ic and clin­i­cal tra­di­tion, and writ­ten pop­u­lar sci­ence books such as The Exec­u­tive Brain: Frontal Lobes and The Civ­i­lized Mind, The Wis­dom Para­dox: How Your Mind Can Grow Stronger As Your Brain Grows Old­er, and recent­ly co-authored The Sharp­Brains Guide to Brain Fit­ness.

coleMichael Cole, Chief Exec­u­tive Offi­cer, Viv­i­ty Labs. Mr. Cole is an expe­ri­enced exec­u­tive with a strong back­ground in strate­gic busi­ness devel­op­ment. He is the founder and CEO of Viv­i­ty Labs, the devel­op­er of brain fit­ness des­ti­na­tion Fitbrains.com, fea­tur­ing a large col­lec­tion of top-qual­i­ty casu­al brain games, progress track­ing, awards and com­mu­ni­ty fea­tures. Mr. Cole has more than 12 years of expe­ri­ence launch­ing inno­v­a­tive con­sumer com­pa­nies in the US, Europe and Japan. Mr. Cole received his MBA from EM Lyon in France and his BA from SFU in Van­cou­ver, Cana­da.

gordonEvian Gor­don, CEO, Brain Resource. Dr Evian Gor­don, PhD, MBBCh, is the Chair­man and Chief Exec­u­tive Offi­cer of Brain Resource. Dr Gor­don has over 20 years of expe­ri­ence in human brain research. He was the found­ing direc­tor of the Brain Dynam­ics Cen­tre at West­mead Hos­pi­tal and a senior lec­tur­er in the Depart­ment of Psy­cho­log­i­cal Med­i­cine at the Uni­ver­si­ty of Syd­ney. He edit­ed the first book on “Inte­gra­tive Neu­ro­science” and has more than 160 pub­li­ca­tions.

misha.pavelMisha Pavel, Ph.D., Bio­med­ical Engi­neer­ing Divi­sion Head, Ore­gon Health & Sci­ence Uni­ver­si­ty. Dr. Pavel was born in the for­mer Czecho­slo­va­kia and received his Ph.D. in Exper­i­men­tal Psy­chol­o­gy from New York Uni­ver­si­ty and his M.S. in Elec­tri­cal Engi­neer­ing from Stan­ford Uni­ver­si­ty. He joined OGI in 1993. Dur­ing a leave of absence, Dr. Pavel was a Tech­nol­o­gy Leader at AT&T Lab­o­ra­to­ries in Men­lo Park, Cal­i­for­nia, where he was devel­op­ing net­worked, wire­less and mobile appli­ca­tions for infor­ma­tion access and con­text-aware inter­ac­tions. Pre­vi­ous­ly, Dr. Pavel was a mem­ber of the Tech­ni­cal Staff at Bell Lab­o­ra­to­ries. Dr. Pavel is the author of more than 80 tech­ni­cal and sci­en­tif­ic papers.

rizzo1Albert “Skip” Riz­zo, Co-Direc­tor VR Psych Lab at USC’s School of Geron­tol­ogy. Dr. Riz­zo is a Research Sci­en­tist at the Uni­ver­si­ty of South­ern Cal­i­for­nia Insti­tute for Cre­ative Tech­nolo­gies and has a fac­ul­ty appoint­ment with the USC School of Geron­tol­ogy. Dr. Riz­zo con­ducts research on the design, devel­op­ment and eval­u­a­tion of Vir­tu­al Real­i­ty sys­tems tar­get­ing the areas of clin­i­cal assess­ment, treat­ment and reha­bil­i­ta­tion. His cog­ni­tive work has addressed the use of VR appli­ca­tions to test and train atten­tion, mem­o­ry, visu­ospa­tial abil­i­ties and exec­u­tive func­tion. He received his Ph.D. in Clin­i­cal Psy­chol­o­gy from the State Uni­ver­si­ty of New York at Bing­ham­ton.

Muki Hansteen-IzoraMuki Hansteen-Izo­ra, Senior Design Researcher and Strate­gist with Intel’s Dig­i­tal Health Group. Muki is also the Intel lead and co-PI for the Tech­nol­o­gy Research for Inde­pen­dent Liv­ing (TRIL) Centre’s Cog­ni­tive Func­tion research strand, which is inves­ti­gat­ing how inter­ac­tive media and gam­ing tech­nolo­gies can sup­port cog­ni­tion in old­er pop­u­la­tions. Pri­or to join­ing Intel, Muki served as a lead researcher at Philips Research Labs. He holds a degree in Cul­tur­al Anthro­pol­o­gy from the Uni­ver­si­ty of Cal­i­for­nia at San­ta Cruz, and com­plet­ed his grad­u­ate train­ing in Learn­ing, Design, and Tech­nol­o­gy at Stan­ford Uni­ver­si­ty.

Margaret MorrisMar­garet Mor­ris, Senior Researcher in Intel’s Dig­i­tal Health Group. Mar­garet stud­ies the ways that emerg­ing tech­nolo­gies can enhance men­tal and phys­i­cal well­be­ing. She con­ducts ethno­graph­ic research to iden­ti­fy needs and works with engi­neers to devel­op and eval­u­ate explorato­ry pro­to­types. Pri­or to join­ing Intel in 2002, she stud­ied tech­nol­o­gy adop­tion in Sapient’s Expe­ri­ence Mod­el­ling group. Margie com­plet­ed her Ph.D. in Clin­i­cal Psy­chol­o­gy with a minor in Behav­iour­al Neu­ro­science at the Uni­ver­si­ty of New Mex­i­co, her clin­i­cal intern­ship at the San Fran­cis­co VA Med­ical Cen­tre, and her post­doc­tor­al fel­low­ship at Stan­ford Uni­ver­si­ty. She has a B.A. in Eng­lish from Haver­ford Col­lege.

house_for-webCharles (Chuck) House is the exec­u­tive direc­tor of Media X, Stan­ford University’s Indus­try Affil­i­ate research pro­gram on media and tech­nol­o­gy, and a senior research schol­ar in the Human Sci­ences and Tech­nol­o­gy Advanced Research divi­sion at Stan­ford. Pre­vi­ous­ly, he was the direc­tor of Soci­etal Impact of Tech­nol­o­gy for Intel Cor­po­ra­tion, and the first Direc­tor of Intel’s Vir­tu­al Research Col­lab­o­ra­to­ry. He recent­ly co-authored The HP Phe­nom­e­non: Inno­va­tion and Busi­ness Trans­for­ma­tion (Stan­ford Uni­ver­si­ty Press, Octo­ber 2009).

wesnesKei­th Wesnes, Prac­tice Leader, Unit­ed BioSource Cor­po­ra­tion. In 1986 Pro­fes­sor Wesnes found­ed Cog­ni­tive Drug Research (acquired in 2009 by Unit­ed BioSource) to offer this sys­tem as a ser­vice in clin­i­cal tri­als. Pro­fes­sor Wesnes has pub­lished over 270 peer-reviewed research arti­cles as well as more than 20 chap­ters and lit­er­a­ture reviews. He holds Pro­fes­sor­ships at the Human Cog­ni­tive Neu­ro­science Unit at Northum­bria Uni­ver­si­ty, New­cas­tle, UK and the Brain Sci­ences Insti­tute at Swin­burne Uni­ver­si­ty, Mel­bourne, Aus­tralia. Pro­fes­sor Wesnes was made Fel­low of the British Psy­cho­log­i­cal Soci­ety in 1989 and Fel­low of the Roy­al Sta­tis­ti­cal Soci­ety in 1983. He earned his BSc from Read­ing Uni­ver­si­ty in 1973 with a First Class Hon­ors in exper­i­men­tal psy­chol­o­gy.

GazzaleyAdam Gaz­za­ley, Direc­tor of the Neu­ro­science Imag­ing Cen­ter at the Uni­ver­si­ty of Cal­i­for­nia, San Fran­cis­co. Dr. Gaz­za­ley is a fac­ul­ty mem­ber in the Neu­rol­o­gy, Phys­i­ol­o­gy and Psy­chi­a­try depart­ments, and prin­ci­pal inves­ti­ga­tor of a cog­ni­tive neu­ro­science lab­o­ra­to­ry that con­ducts research on the neur­al mech­a­nisms of atten­tion and mem­o­ry. A major focus of his research has been to expand our under­stand­ing of the alter­ations in the aging brain that lead to cog­ni­tive decline. His most recent stud­ies explore how we can pre­serve and improve atten­tion and mem­o­ry as we get old­er. He has received many awards and hon­ors for his research, includ­ing the 1997 Cor­ti­cal Schol­ar Award, Pfizer/AFAR Inno­va­tions in Aging Award and the Elli­son Foun­da­tion New Schol­ar Award in Aging.

NoirMichel Noir, CEO, Sci­en­tif­ic Brain Training/ Hap­pyNeu­ron. Dr. Noir received his Ph.D. in Edu­ca­tion­al Sci­ence and post grad­u­ate diplo­ma in Cog­ni­tive Psy­chol­o­gy from the Uni­ver­si­ty of Lyon, France. He received his Grad­u­ate Diplo­ma, Advanced Grad­u­ate Diplo­ma, and Master’s in Pub­lic Law from Paris Law Fac­ul­ty. He also holds an Advanced Grad­u­ate Diplo­ma in Polit­i­cal Sci­ence.. Mr. Noir has authored over 15 books on a vari­ety of edu­ca­tion­al and brain train­ing top­ics and games.

lmh_face-inwhite_resizedDr. Lau­rence Hir­sh­berg directs the Neu­roDe­vel­op­ment Cen­ter and serves on the fac­ul­ty of the Depart­ment of Psy­chi­a­try and Human Behav­ior of the Brown Uni­ver­si­ty Med­ical School as Clin­i­cal Assis­tant Pro­fes­sor. The Neu­roDe­vel­op­ment Cen­ter is one of the 20 research sites world­wide par­tic­i­pat­ing in the largest study of neu­ro­phys­i­o­log­i­cal mark­ers for depres­sion. Dr. Hir­sh­berg is a licensed clin­i­cal psy­chol­o­gist and cer­ti­fied in EEG biofeed­back by the Biofeed­back Cer­ti­fi­ca­tion Insti­tute of Amer­i­ca, and recent­ly served as Guest Edi­tor and con­trib­u­tor to a spe­cial issue of Child and Ado­les­cent Psy­chi­atric Clin­ics of North Amer­i­ca devot­ed to emerg­ing inter­ven­tions in applied neu­ro­science, includ­ing neu­ro­feed­back and oth­er brain based inter­ven­tions.

drmerzenich Michael Merzenich, Emer­i­tus Pro­fes­sor, UCSF. For more than three decades, Dr. Merzenich has been a lead­ing pio­neer in brain plas­tic­i­ty research. In the late 1980s, Dr. Merzenich was on the team that invent­ed the cochlear implant, now dis­trib­uted by Advanced Bion­ics. In 1996, Dr. Merzenich was the found­ing CEO of Sci­en­tif­ic Learn­ing Cor­po­ra­tion (Nas­daq: SCIL), and in 2004 became co-founder and Chief Sci­en­tif­ic Offi­cer of Posit Sci­ence. Dr. Merzenich has pub­lished more than 200 arti­cles, received numer­ous awards and prizes, and been grant­ed more than 50 patents for his work. His work was fea­tured on the PBS spe­cials “The Brain Fit­ness Pro­gram” and “Brain Fit­ness 2: Sight and Sound.” Dr. Merzenich earned his BS degree at the Uni­ver­si­ty of Port­land and his PhD at Johns Hop­kins. He retired from his long career as Fran­cis A. Sooy Pro­fes­sor and Co-Direc­tor of the Keck Cen­ter for Inte­gra­tive Neu­ro­science at the Uni­ver­si­ty of Cal­i­for­nia at San Fran­cis­co in 2007. He was elect­ed to the Nation­al Acad­e­my of Sci­ences in 1999 and will be inau­gu­rat­ed into the Insti­tute of Med­i­cine this year.

Klingberg_right_sizeTorkel Kling­berg, Pro­fes­sor Cog­ni­tive Neu­ro­science, Karolin­s­ka Insti­tute. Dr. Kling­berg is a pro­fes­sor of cog­ni­tive neu­ro­science at the Stock­holm Brain Insti­tute, which is part of Sweden’s Karolin­s­ka Institute.In 2001, Kling­berg found­ed Cogmed to devel­op and pro­duce work­ing mem­o­ry train­ing pro­grams based on his break­through research demon­strat­ing that the work­ing mem­o­ry can be improved through train­ing. Kling­berg has gained recog­ni­tion in the sci­en­tif­ic com­mu­ni­ty and the inter­na­tion­al media. He has received dis­tinc­tions from the Inter­na­tion­al Neu­ropsy­cho­log­i­cal Asso­ci­a­tion and has been named “Future Research Leader” by the Swedish Foun­da­tion for Strate­gic Research. In 2006, he was award­ed the Philip’s Nordic Prize for out­stand­ing research in the field of Neu­ropsy­chi­a­try. Kling­berg also holds a research posi­tion at the Roy­al Swedish Acad­e­my of Sci­ences.

JoshuaRSteinerman-resizedJoshua Stein­er­man, Asst. Pro­fes­sor, Albert Ein­stein Col­lege of Med­i­cine – Mon­te­fiore Med­ical Cen­ter. Edu­cat­ed and trained at Har­vard, Yale, Colum­bia, and the State Uni­ver­si­ty of New York, Dr. Stein­er­man is a behav­ioral neu­rol­o­gist and neu­ropsy­chi­a­trist who com­bines patient care with clin­i­cal research in brain aging and cog­ni­tion. Dr. Stein­er­man co-directs the Ein­stein-Mon­te­fiore Cen­ter for Healthy Brain Aging and is the sci­en­tif­ic founder of ProG­evi­ty Neu­ro­science.

stern_sYaakov Stern, Cog­ni­tive Neu­ro­science Divi­sion Leader, Colum­bia Uni­ver­si­ty. Dr. Stern directs the Cog­ni­tive Neu­ro­science Divi­sion of the Sergievsky Cen­ter and is Direc­tor of Neu­ropsy­chol­o­gy for the Mem­o­ry Dis­or­ders Clin­ic at the New York State Psy­chi­atric Insti­tute. He also directs the post-doc­tor­al train­ing pro­gram Neu­ropsy­chol­o­gy and Cog­ni­tion in Aging, and is a Pro­fes­sor of Clin­i­cal Neu­ropsy­chol­o­gy in the Depart­ments of Neu­rol­o­gy, Psy­chi­a­try, and Psy­chol­o­gy, as well as the in Sergievsky Cen­ter and the Taub Insti­tute for the Research on Alzheimer’s Dis­ease and the Aging Brain, at Colum­bia Uni­ver­si­ty Col­lege of Physi­cians and Sur­geons.

150px-Kenneth_KosikKen­neth Kosik, Co-Direc­tor, UC San­ta Bar­bara Neu­ro­science Research Insti­tute. Dr. Kosik received his M.D. degree in 1976 from the Med­ical Col­lege of Penn­syl­va­nia and com­plet­ed a neu­rol­o­gy res­i­den­cy from Tufts New Eng­land Med­ical Cen­ter where he served as chief res­i­dent in 1979. From 1980 until 2005 he held var­i­ous appoint­ments at the Har­vard Med­ical School where he became Pro­fes­sor of Neu­rol­o­gy and Neu­ro­science in 1996. In the fall of 2004 he assumed the co-direc­tor­ship of the Neu­ro­science Research Insti­tute and the Har­ri­man Chair in the Depart­ment of Mol­e­c­u­lar, Cel­lu­lar and Devel­op­men­tal Biol­o­gy at the Uni­ver­si­ty of Cal­i­for­nia San­ta Bar­bara. He has received mul­ti­ple awards, includ­ing a Whitak­er Health Sci­ences Award from Mass­a­chu­setts Insti­tute of Tech­nol­o­gy, the Derek Den­ny-Brown Neu­ro­log­i­cal Schol­ar Award from the Amer­i­can Neu­ro­log­i­cal Asso­ci­a­tion, the Zenith Award from the Alzheimer’s Asso­ci­a­tion, and a NASA Group Achieve­ment Award to the Neu­ro­lab Sci­ence Team.

jonas_jendi2Jonas Jen­di, CEO, Cogmed. Jonas Jen­di joined Cogmed in 2001 as its chief exec­u­tive offi­cer. In 2007, Jen­di opened Cogmed’s North Amer­i­can head­quar­ters in Naperville, IL, where he is now based. Pri­or to Cogmed, Jen­di pro­vid­ed strate­gic con­sult­ing for the Boston Con­sult­ing Group in Stock­holm and Paris, and held man­age­ment and con­sult­ing roles for var­i­ous tech­nol­o­gy start-ups. He holds a MS from the Stock­holm School of Eco­nom­ics.

jimisonHol­ly Jimi­son, Assoc. Pro­fes­sor, Ore­gon Health & Sci­ence Uni­ver­si­ty. Dr. Jimi­son is an Asso­ciate Pro­fes­sor of Med­ical Infor­mat­ics and Clin­i­cal Epi­demi­ol­o­gy at Ore­gon Health & Sci­ence Uni­ver­si­ty. She teach­es cours­es in Con­sumer Health Infor­mat­ics and Ethics, Legal, and Social Issues in Med­ical Infor­mat­ics. Hol­ly received her doc­tor­ate in Med­ical Infor­ma­tion Sci­ences from Stan­ford Uni­ver­si­ty, with dis­ser­ta­tion work on using com­put­er deci­sion mod­els to tai­lor patient edu­ca­tion mate­ri­als. Her research inter­ests include tech­nol­o­gy for suc­cess­ful aging, home health mon­i­tor­ing, user mod­els for adap­tive inter­faces for con­sumer health infor­ma­tion, and cog­ni­tive mon­i­tor­ing through com­put­er inter­ac­tions.

jesse-wrightJesse Wright, Direc­tor Depres­sion Cen­ter, Uni­ver­si­ty of Louisville. Jesse H. Wright, M.D., Ph.D., is a pro­fes­sor in the Depart­ment of Psy­chi­a­try and Behav­ioral Sci­ences at the Uni­ver­si­ty of Louisville, where he also serves as asso­ciate chair­man for Aca­d­e­m­ic Affairs and direc­tor of the Depres­sion Cen­ter. Addi­tion­al­ly, he is the med­ical direc­tor of the Nor­ton Psy­chi­atric Cen­ter and a pol­i­cy advi­sor for the Depres­sion and Bipo­lar Sup­port Alliance (DBSA). Dr. Wright is the prin­ci­pal author of “Good Days Ahead: The Inter­ac­tive Pro­gram for Depres­sion and Anx­i­ety,” the first mul­ti­me­dia com­put­er pro­gram for treat­ment of depres­sion. Dr. Wright was the found­ing pres­i­dent of the Acad­e­my of Cog­ni­tive Ther­a­py and is a past pres­i­dent of the Ken­tucky Psy­chi­atric Asso­ci­a­tion. He also is a fel­low of the Amer­i­can Col­lege of Psy­chi­a­trists. He grad­u­at­ed from Jef­fer­son Med­ical Col­lege in Philadel­phia and com­plet­ed his res­i­den­cy train­ing in psy­chi­a­try at the Uni­ver­si­ty of Michi­gan.

tim_chang_norwestTim Chang, Part­ner, Nor­west Ven­ture Part­ners. Tim brings a com­bi­na­tion of oper­a­tional, tech­ni­cal and inter­na­tion­al busi­ness expe­ri­ence to Nor­west Ven­ture Part­ners. Tim focus­es on invest­ments in mobile, gam­ing, dig­i­tal media, and also leads NVP’s invest­ment prac­tice in Chi­na and Asia-Pacif­ic. Tim led NVP’s invest­ments in and joined the boards of direc­tors of ngmo­co, Lumos Labs, Brite Semi­con­duc­tor and 3jam. Tim spent more than five years work­ing in Japan. He was a prod­uct man­ag­er at Gate­way Inc and a devel­op­ment engi­neer for Gen­er­al Motors. Tim holds an MBA from Stan­ford Grad­u­ate School of Busi­ness, and an MS in elec­tri­cal engineering/system engi­neer­ing as well as a BS in elec­tri­cal engi­neer­ing from the Uni­ver­si­ty of Michi­gan.

lisa_vb.thumbnailLisa Schooner­man, Co-founder, vibrant­Brains. Lisa held a vari­ety of tech­ni­cal and edi­to­r­i­al posi­tions with the Thom­son Cor­po­ra­tion in the Legal Pub­lish­ing divi­sion (now Thom­son­Reuters), begin­ning in Rochester, NY and then com­ing to San Fran­cis­co to work for what was then Ban­croft Whit­ney. Lisa’s work for Thom­son includ­ed a 3-year assign­ment in the UK, where she was Edi­to­r­i­al Direc­tor of the group pro­vid­ing con­tent for West­law UK, the first inter­na­tion­al appli­ca­tion of the West­law data­base.

Richard Levin­son, Pres­i­dent, Atten­tion Con­trol Sys­tems. In the ear­ly 1990s, as a robot­ics researcher at NASA-Ames Research Cen­ter in Moun­tain View, Cal­i­for­nia, Mr. Levin­son began study­ing the neu­ropsy­chol­o­gy of human plan­ning in order to increase auton­o­my for NASA robots. In 1995, he pro­posed a com­put­er mod­el of human frontal lobe func­tion in an arti­cle pub­lished in the Annals of the New York Acad­e­my of Sci­ences. That com­put­er mod­el of exec­u­tive func­tions led to the devel­op­ment of PEAT, a pow­er­ful cuing and sched­ul­ing treat­ment cur­rent­ly avail­able to peo­ple with a wide range of cog­ni­tive and atten­tion dis­or­ders. Levin­son has pub­li­ca­tions relat­ed to PEAT in both com­put­er sci­ence and neu­ropsy­chol­o­gy jour­nals, and has pio­neered an inter­dis­ci­pli­nary approach to cog­ni­tive reha­bil­i­ta­tion that has drawn wide­spread atten­tion.

litinski-vVeroni­ka Litin­s­ki, Direc­tor, MaRS Ven­ture Group. Veroni­ka Litin­s­ki coor­di­nates the MaRS ven­ture ser­vices pro­grams deliv­ered to entre­pre­neurs, investors and high-growth com­pa­nies. She also pro­vides advi­so­ry ser­vices to entre­pre­neurs and high growth com­pa­nies, with a spe­cial focus on life sci­ences mar­kets, spe­cial­iz­ing in cor­po­rate finance and busi­ness devel­op­ment. Veroni­ka start­ed her career as a research sci­en­tist at Lawrence Liv­er­more Lab in Berke­ley, Cal­i­for­nia. Tran­si­tion­ing to the busi­ness world, Veroni­ka found­ed a med­ical jour­nal, earned her MBA (Finance) at the Uni­ver­si­ty of San Fran­cis­co, and worked in cor­po­rate finance with Union Bank and GATX Finan­cial Cor­po­ra­tion. Veroni­ka is a mem­ber of Finan­cial Women Asso­ci­a­tion (FWA) and Finan­cial Exec­u­tives Inter­na­tion­al (FEI).

jenningsCharles Jen­nings, Direc­tor of the new McGov­ern Insti­tute Neu­rotech­nol­o­gy (MINT) Pro­gram, MIT. Fol­low­ing post­doc­tor­al stud­ies in devel­op­men­tal biol­o­gy at Har­vard and MIT, he became an edi­tor with the sci­en­tif­ic jour­nal Nature. He was the found­ing edi­tor of Nature Neu­ro­science, wide­ly con­sid­ered a lead­ing jour­nal in its field. More recent­ly, he was the first exec­u­tive direc­tor of the Har­vard Stem Cell Insti­tute, and he con­tin­ues to serve as an advi­sor to the Con­necti­cut Stem Cell Research Pro­gram.

DrMacknikStephen Mack­nik, Direc­tor of the Lab­o­ra­to­ry of Behav­ioral Neu­ro­phys­i­ol­o­gy, Bar­row Neu­ro­log­i­cal Insti­tute. Dr. Macknik’s research and sci­en­tif­ic out­reach activ­i­ties have been fea­tured in the New York Times, The Wall Street Journal,The Chica­go Tri­bune, The Boston Globe, NPR, and Der Spiegel, among hun­dreds of media sto­ries. He is board mem­ber of Sci­en­tif­ic Amer­i­can, where he has pub­lished sev­er­al fea­ture arti­cles and for which he pub­lished a free month­ly online col­umn on the neu­ro­science of illu­sions.

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Spon­sors

We want to thank the Spon­sors who made the Sharp­Brains Sum­mit pos­si­ble.

Bay­crest, locat­ed in Toron­to, is one of the world’s pre­mier aca­d­e­m­ic health sci­ences cen­ters focused on aging. Through its strengths in research and edu­ca­tion, Bay­crest is using the pow­er of inquiry and dis­cov­ery to improve the health of tomorrow’s elder­ly while at the same time care for and enhance the qual­i­ty of life of the elder­ly today. Bay­crest runs a Geri­atric Health Care Sys­tem, a Research Cen­tre for Aging and the Brain, and a Cen­tre for Edu­ca­tion on Aging. Ful­ly affil­i­at­ed with the Uni­ver­si­ty of Toron­to, Bay­crest is play­ing a unique and impor­tant role in train­ing and enlight­en­ing future pro­fes­sion­als who will have the respon­si­bil­i­ty of car­ing for our aging pop­u­la­tion. We also have link­ages, part­ner­ships and appoint­ments at oth­er aca­d­e­m­ic cen­tres across the coun­try, con­ti­nent and beyond.

The Insti­tute For the Future is an inde­pen­dent, non­prof­it strate­gic research group with more than 40 years of fore­cast­ing expe­ri­ence. The core of our work is iden­ti­fy­ing emerg­ing trends and dis­con­ti­nu­ities that will trans­form glob­al soci­ety and the glob­al mar­ket­place. We pro­vide our mem­bers with insights into busi­ness strat­e­gy, design process, inno­va­tion, and social dilem­mas. Our research spans a broad ter­ri­to­ry of deeply trans­for­ma­tive trends, from health and health care to tech­nol­o­gy, the work­place, and human iden­ti­ty. The Insti­tute for the Future is locat­ed in Palo Alto, Cal­i­for­nia.

The EDGE Inno­va­tion Net­work was formed in Decem­ber 2006 as a col­lab­o­ra­tive, open-envi­ron­ment ini­tia­tive enabling mem­bers and sup­port­ers to work togeth­er to enhance the deliv­ery cycle of tech­nol­o­gy and inno­va­tion to the warfight­er. Over the past 18 months, EDGE mem­ber­ship has grown from 15 to 58 mem­bers rep­re­sent­ing U.S. and inter­na­tion­al mil­i­tary and gov­ern­ment agen­cies, high-tech indus­tries and five U.S.-based uni­ver­si­ties. Spon­sored by Gen­er­al Dynam­ics C4 Sys­tems, the EDGE pro­vides sub­ject mat­ter exper­tise, advanced prod­uct port­fo­lios and equip­ment, facil­i­ties and lab­o­ra­to­ries for devel­op­ing and test­ing tech­nolo­gies, prod­ucts and sys­tems at faster cycle times than are cur­rent­ly pos­si­ble on fund­ed pro­grams while enhanc­ing the effec­tive­ness, agili­ty and sur­viv­abil­i­ty of users world­wide.

Cog­niFit brain fit­ness pro­grams pro­vide an ini­tial base­line assess­ment of the cog­ni­tive abil­i­ties that are most affect­ed by aging, before cre­at­ing per­son­al­ized train­ing pro­grams. No two train­ing pro­grams are the same. Based on more than 30 years of neu­ro-sci­en­tif­ic research, CogniFit’s sci­en­tif­i­cal­ly val­i­dat­ed, patent­ed brain fit­ness pro­grams are per­son­al­ized to each user’s skills and needs to help enhance their cog­ni­tive per­for­mance and health.

Posit Sci­ence is the leader in deliv­er­ing clin­i­cal­ly proven brain fit­ness soft­ware that brings brain sci­ence from the lab to the peo­ple, improv­ing every­day lives. The com­pa­ny com­bines break­through research and a focus on great cus­tomer expe­ri­ences to cre­ate prod­ucts that are engag­ing and help users think faster, focus bet­ter and remem­ber more. Staff neu­ro­sci­en­tists col­lab­o­rate with more than 50 sci­en­tists from lead­ing research insti­tu­tions such as Mayo Clin­ic and Johns Hop­kins as well as engi­neers and prod­uct mar­keters to design, build and test our com­put­er-based pro­grams. Posit Sci­ence prod­ucts are avail­able online and through health, long-term care and auto insur­ers. Posit Sci­ence is also fea­tured in the PBS doc­u­men­tary “The Brain Fit­ness Pro­gram.”

HAP­PYneu­ron is a pio­neer in brain train­ing and reha­bil­i­ta­tion, pro­vid­ing sci­en­tif­i­cal­ly rig­or­ous and evi­dence based cog­ni­tive stim­u­la­tion pro­grams to indi­vid­u­als, clin­i­cian and researchers world­wide to pro­mote healthy brain aging and the treat­ment of a vari­ety of cog­ni­tive impair­ment con­di­tions. In doing so, the com­pa­ny strives to real­ize the vision of improved brain func­tion, health and vital­i­ty, and to make a pos­i­tive impact in the lives of pro­gram par­tic­i­pants. HAP­PYneu­ron Inc. is a major­i­ty owned sub­sidiary of Sci­en­tif­ic Brain Train­ing (NYSE Euronext: MLSBT).

A.G.E. Mat­ters is a mul­ti­dis­ci­pli­nary Adult and Geri­atric Eval­u­a­tion Clin­ic in Toron­to, Ontario, Cana­da, with a mis­sion to pro­vide swift and con­tin­u­al­ly upgrad­ed access to com­mu­ni­ty-based, com­pre­hen­sive assess­ment of cog­ni­tion, func­tion and behav­ior;  per­son­al­ized pro­grams of pre­ven­tion, coun­sel­ing, edu­ca­tion and treat­ment; and nutri­tion­al and lifestyle rec­om­men­da­tions, cog­ni­tive train­ing pro­grams, and med­ica­tions of proven ben­e­fit.

The Arrow­smith Pro­gram is a com­pre­hen­sive suite of cog­ni­tive pro­grams for stu­dents with learn­ing dis­abil­i­ties that tar­gets 19 areas of the brain that are most com­mon­ly involved in learn­ing.  It inte­grates two lines of neu­ro­science research, that of Russ­ian neu­ropsy­chol­o­gist, A.R. Luria and the Amer­i­can psy­chol­o­gist, Mark Rosen­zweig, into a method­ol­o­gy with a mul­ti­tude of prac­ti­cal appli­ca­tions for address­ing learn­ing dis­abil­i­ties.  The Arrow­smith Pro­gram iden­ti­fies and strength­ens the weak cog­ni­tive areas that affect learn­ing and each stu­dent works on cog­ni­tive pro­grams that are indi­vid­u­al­ly designed for his or her areas of learn­ing dif­fi­cul­ty.  The Arrow­smith Pro­gram was devel­oped at Arrow­smith School in Toron­to where it has been offered since 1979 and is avail­able in pub­lic and pri­vate schools in Cana­da and the U.S.

9am. Baycrest/ Cog­nic­i­ti will intro­duce the new Memory@Work work­shop, designed to teach what mem­o­ry is, how lifestyle fac­tors such as dis­trac­tion and stress can affect mem­o­ry, and how to enhance mem­o­ry per­for­mance at work with the use of enabling strate­gies.

10am. Cog­niFit will demo Cog­niFit Per­son­al Coach and Cog­niFit Senior Dri­ver, two online pro­grams designed to assess and main cog­ni­tive func­tions for healthy liv­ing and safe dri­ving, respec­tive­ly.

11am. Posit Sci­ence will demo InSight, a soft­ware-based cog­ni­tive train­ing pack­age designed to sharp­en brain’s visu­al sys­tem. This is the pro­gram being test­ed by All­state for safer dri­ving.

Noon. Hap­py Neu­ron will intro­duce HAP­PYneu­ron PRO, a new plat­form for pro­fes­sion­als for the effec­tive deliv­ery and man­age­ment of cog­ni­tive reme­di­a­tion and reha­bil­i­ta­tion pro­grams in a patient cen­tric man­ner.

1pm. Sharp­Brains will help nav­i­gate this grow­ing field by dis­cussing The State of the Brain Fit­ness Soft­ware 2009 report and The Sharp­Brains Guide to Brain Fit­ness con­sumer guide, and sum­ma­riz­ing key Sum­mit take-aways.

Part­ners

The fol­low­ing Part­ners made the Sharp­Brains Sum­mit pos­si­ble:

Media X at Stan­ford Uni­ver­si­ty is a col­lab­o­ra­tion of Stan­ford and indus­try that brings togeth­er Stanford’s lead­ing inter­ac­tive tech­nol­o­gy research with com­pa­nies com­mit­ted to tech­ni­cal advance­ment and inno­va­tion. Media X is affil­i­at­ed with the H-STAR Insti­tute (Human-Sci­ences and Tech­nolo­gies Advanced Research Insti­tute).

The Neu­rotech­nol­o­gy Indus­try Orga­ni­za­tion (NIO) is a non-prof­it trade asso­ci­a­tion that rep­re­sents com­pa­nies involved in neu­ro­science, aca­d­e­m­ic neu­ro­science research cen­ters, and brain-ill­ness advo­ca­cy groups across the Unit­ed States and through­out the world.

MaRS Dis­cov­ery Dis­trict is a large scale, mis­sion dri­ven inno­va­tion cen­tre locat­ed in Toron­to and net­worked across Ontario, focused on build­ing Canada’s next gen­er­a­tion of tech­nol­o­gy com­pa­nies. MaRS works close­ly with entre­pre­neurs to grow and scale their ven­tures into glob­al mar­ket lead­ers in life sci­ences and health care, infor­ma­tion, com­mu­ni­ca­tions and dig­i­tal media tech­nolo­gies, clean­tech and advanced mate­ri­als, as well as inno­v­a­tive social pur­pose busi­ness.

Games for Health by the Seri­ous Games Ini­tia­tive devel­ops a com­mu­ni­ty and best prac­tices plat­form for the numer­ous games being built for health care appli­ca­tions.

The Cen­ter for Tech­nol­o­gy and Aging is a non-prof­it orga­ni­za­tion with a pur­pose to advance the dif­fu­sion of tech­nolo­gies that help old­er adults lead health­i­er lives and main­tain inde­pen­dence. It was found­ed in 2009 with a grant from The SCAN Foun­da­tion and is affil­i­at­ed with the Pub­lic Health Insti­tute.

The Brain Injury Asso­ci­a­tion of Amer­i­ca (BIAA), found­ed in 1980, is the lead­ing nation­al orga­ni­za­tion serv­ing and rep­re­sent­ing indi­vid­u­als, fam­i­lies and pro­fes­sion­als who are touched by a life-alter­ing, often dev­as­tat­ing, trau­mat­ic brain injury (TBI). Togeth­er with its net­work of more than 40 char­tered state affil­i­ates, as well as hun­dreds of local chap­ters and sup­port groups across the coun­try, the BIAA pro­vides infor­ma­tion, edu­ca­tion and sup­port to assist the 3.17 mil­lion Amer­i­cans cur­rent­ly liv­ing with trau­mat­ic brain injury and their fam­i­lies.

The USC Davis School of Geron­tol­ogy has con­sis­tent­ly pio­neered inno­v­a­tive edu­ca­tion­al pro­grams includ­ing the world’s first Ph.D. in Geron­tol­ogy, the first joint Master’s degree in Geron­tol­ogy and Busi­ness Admin­is­tra­tion, and the first under­grad­u­ate Health Sci­ence Track in Geron­tol­ogy. Research in mol­e­c­u­lar biol­o­gy, neu­ro­science, demog­ra­phy, psy­chol­o­gy, soci­ol­o­gy and pub­lic pol­i­cy is con­duct­ed under the aus­pices of the Ethel Per­cy Andrus Geron­tol­ogy Cen­ter, found­ed in 1964.

The Alzheimer’s Drug Dis­cov­ery Foun­da­tion was estab­lished in 2004 as a pub­lic char­i­ty to sup­port the advance­ment of drugs to pre­vent, treat, and cure Alzheimer’s dis­ease, relat­ed demen­tias, and cog­ni­tive aging. Our strat­e­gy of ven­ture phil­an­thropy is based on the idea that our research grant recip­i­ents are engaged in projects that are poten­tial­ly viable in the mar­ket­place with a pos­si­ble return on invest­ment.

The Inter­na­tion­al Coun­cil on Active Aging® (ICAA) was found­ed in the belief that uni­fy­ing the efforts of the orga­ni­za­tions focused on old­er adults ben­e­fits both the peo­ple they reach and the orga­ni­za­tions them­selves. Today, the vision is shared by over 8,000 orga­ni­za­tions con­nect­ed to the ICAA net­work.

The UC-San­ta Bar­bara Neu­ro­science Research Insti­tute has a mis­sion to pro­mote and facil­i­tate inter­dis­ci­pli­nary neu­ro­science research. Work in the insti­tute inte­grates the tools and strate­gies of mod­ern mol­e­c­u­lar biol­o­gy, genet­ics, cell biol­o­gy, devel­op­men­tal biol­o­gy, biopsy­chol­o­gy, bio­chem­istry, phys­i­ol­o­gy, bio­physics and bio­engi­neer­ing.

The Alzheimer’s Research and Pre­ven­tion Foun­da­tion (ARPF), estab­lished in 1993, is ded­i­cat­ed to reduc­ing the inci­dence of Alzheimer’s dis­ease by con­duct­ing clin­i­cal research and pro­vid­ing edu­ca­tion­al out­reach. Our mis­sion is to make avail­able infor­ma­tion, from con­ven­tion­al and com­ple­men­tary med­i­cine, that will empow­er peo­ple to build healthy brains.

OLLI @ Berke­ley is one of the 121 Osh­er Life­long Learn­ing Insti­tutes on uni­ver­si­ty and col­lege cam­pus­es in 48 states (plus the Dis­trict of Colum­bia) sup­port­ed by the Bernard Osh­er Foun­da­tion. OLLI @ Berke­ley pro­vides old­er adults an intel­lec­tu­al, cul­tur­al and cre­ative con­nec­tion to Berke­ley as well as a place for Berkeley’s dis­tin­guished fac­ul­ty and oth­ers to share their research and inter­ests in an inter­dis­ci­pli­nary exchange of ideas.

The Knowl­edge Media Design Insti­tute (KMDI) is a leader in inter­dis­ci­pli­nary research and teach­ing at the Uni­ver­si­ty of Toron­to. Our work spans the sci­en­tif­ic study of the ways in which media and media tech­nolo­gies shape, and are shaped by, human activ­i­ty, and the prac­ti­cal work of found­ing an inter­dis­ci­pli­nary nexus for the design of such media. Adopt­ing a human-cen­tred and par­tic­i­pa­to­ry approach to design, our goal is to enhance human skill rather than dimin­ish it, and to encour­age cre­ativ­i­ty and inno­va­tion.

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About SharpBrains

As seen in The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, BBC News, CNN, Reuters, and more, SharpBrains is an independent market research firm and think tank tracking health and performance applications of brain science.